Research

christoph_steiner_biochar_slash_and_charThe evidence that Terra Preta was manmade, and thus the proven feasibility to transform one of the most infertile soils into one of the most productive soil inspired charcoal research.”

Christoph Steiner
University of Georgia
Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Program

RECENT PUBLICATIONS

Major, J, et al. (2010) “Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna Oxisol,” Plant and Soil, available online at :http://bit.ly/9wQFIk

TEXT BOOKS

BIORENEWABLE RESOURCES
Brown, Robert C, “Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture.” Available at: http://www.amazon.com/Biorenewable-Resources-Engineering-Products-Agriculture/dp/0813822637/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1235519772&sr=1-2

BIOCHAR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Lehmann, Johannes and Stephen Joseph, “Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology.” Earthscan Publisher, 2009. Available at http://www.earthscan.co.uk/?tabid=49381

AMAZONIAN DARK EARTHS
Lehmann, Johannes; Kern, Dirse C., Glaser, Brund; Woods, William I., Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management (Spring January 2004). Available at http://www.amazon.com/Amazonian-Dark-Earths-Properties-management/dp/1402018398/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1228581006&sr=1-2

SLASH-AND-CHAR INSTEAD OF SLASH-AND-BURN
Steiner, Christoph.  “Slash-and-Char as an Alternative to Slash-and-Burn Agriculture.” Available at http://www.cuvillier.de/flycms/de/html/30/-UickI3zKPS,0dk4=/Buchdetails.html

POPULAR PRESS
TONY BLAIR’S SEVEN WAYS TO CUT CARBON EMISSIONS
“Seven Ways to Cut Carbon Emissions Courtesy of Tony Blair,” Schwartz, Ariel, July 6, 2009: http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/ariel-schwartz/sustainability/seven-policies-cut-carbon-emissions-courtesy-tony-blair

BIOCHAR TO DEAL WITH FOREST FIRES
“Biochar: one way to deal with more fire-prone forests,” (New York Times) Jessica Leber, May 1, 2009:http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2009/05/01/01climatewire-biochar-one-way-to-deal-with-more-fire-prone-12208.html?scp=1&sq=Biochar%20–%20one%20way%20to%20deal%20with%20more%20fire-prone%20areas&st=cse

ANCIENT FERTILIZER TECHNIQUE COULD HELP DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
“Ancient fertilizer technique could help poor farmers, store carbon” (CBC News) Emily Chung, April 23, 2009: http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/04/23/tech-090423-biochar-carbon-trading.html#socialcomments

BIOCHAR: THE KEY TO CARBON NEGATIVE BIOFUELS
“Biochar: the key to carbon negative biofuels” (RenewableEnergyWorld.com)  Thomas R. Blakeslee, April 22, 2009: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/04/biochar-the-key-to-carbon-negative-biofuels?cmpid=WNL-Friday-April24-2009

JAMES LOVELOCK ON BIOCHAR
“James Lovelock on Biochar: Let the Earth Remove the CO2 for Us.” (The Guardian) James Lovelock, March 24, 2009: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/mar/24/biochar-earth-c02

BIOCHAR: IS THE HYPE JUSTIFIED?
“Biochar: Is the hype justified?”  (BBC News) Robert Harrabin, March 16, 2009: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7924373.stm

BIOCHAR GOES INDUSTRIAL WITH MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS
“Biochar goes industrial with giant microwaves to lock carbon into charcoal.” Alock Jha, The Guardian, March 13th, 2009:  http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/mar/13/charcoal-carbon

BLACK IS THE NEW GREEN
“Black is the new green” (The Financial Times) Fiona Harvey, Feb. 27th, 2009: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/67843ec0-020b-11de-8199-000077b07658.html

CARBONDALE FARM AWARDED $50,000 TO STUDY BIOCHAR FERTILIZATION
“Four States Award Biomass Energy Grants,” (Biomass Magazine) Ryan Christiansen, March 2009 Issue: http://www.biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2457

MICROWAVE BIOCHAR COMPANY WELCOMES TIM FLANNERY TO BOARD
“Carbon Firm Sends Test Samples,” (The Marlborough Press) Kaikoura Star.  February 25th, 2009: http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/marlboroughexpress/4859672a6523.html

SAVING THE SOIL
“Agriculture and Climate: Saving the Soil” (Allianz Knowledge Partnership) James Tulloch. October 29th, 2008: http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/safety_security/food_water/agriculture_sustainable_farming.html?from=special&special=food_security

BIOCHAR: EMERGING CONCEPT TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE
“Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change” (Congressional Research Service) Kelsi S. Bracmort. Feb. 3, 2009: http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R40186_20090203.pdf

BIOCHAR: CARBON MITIGATION FROM THE GROUND UP
“Biochar: Carbon Mitigation from the Ground Up” (Environews: Innovations) David J. Tenebaum.  Feb. 2009:  http://www.ehponline.org/members/2009/117-2/EHP117pa70PDF.PDF

ANCIENT TECHNIQUE WILL IMPROVE YOUR SOIL
“Make Biochar–This Ancient Technique will Improve Your Soil” (Mother Earth News) Barbara Pleasant. Feb. 2009: http://www.motherearthnews.com/Organic-Gardening/Make-Biochar-To-Improve-Your-Soil.aspx?utm_source=iPost&utm_medium=email

JAMES LOVELOCK: BIOCHAR ONLY WAY TO SAVE HUMANITY
“One Last Chance to Save Mankind” (New Scientist) Gaia Vince. January 23rd, 2009: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126921.500-one-last-chance-to-save-mankind.html

BIOCHAR A BETTER CHEAPER MEANS OF TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE
Turnbull Promises Better, Cheaper Plan to Tackle Climate Change (The Canberra Times) Daniel Cronin. January 24th, 2009: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/turnbull-promises-better-cheaper-plan-to-tackle-climate-change/1415416.aspx

HOW TO SAVE THE AMAZON RAINFOREST (“BIOCHAR FARMING” MENTIONED)
How to Save the Amazon Rainforest (Mongabay.com) Rhett A. Butler. January 4, 2009:  http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0104-saving_the_amazon.html

BIOCHAR #1 OUT OF THE 20 BIG GREEN IDEAS
20 Big Green Ideas (The Guardian) January 11, 2009:  http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jan/11/green-living-ethical-fashion-business

BIOCHAR REJUVENATES SOILS
Pyrolysis Char Rejuvenates Tired Soils (Biomass Magazine): http://www.biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=1298&q=Dynamotive

A HANDFUL OF CARBON
A Handful of Carbon.  (Nature Magazine) Lehmann, Johannes. Available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v447/n7141/full/447143a.html

BLACK IS THE NEW GREEN
Putting the Carbon Back: Black is the New Green: 2006 (Nature Magazine) Marris, Emma. Available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7103/full/442624a.html

A REVOLUTIONARY REMEDY FOR GLOBAL WARMING
A Revolutionary Remedy for Global Warming: 2008 (The Star) Gorrie, Peter. Available at http://www.thestar.com/article/548658

THE BIOCHAR SOLUTION
Carbon: The Biochar Solution: 2008 (The Times) Abend, Lisa.  Available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1864279,00.html

SCIENTIST SAYS ANCIENT TECHNIQUE CUTS GREENHOUSE GAS
Scientist says ancient technique cuts greenhouse gas: 2008 (Reuters) Wynnn, Gerard.  Avilable at http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSTRE4B45KB20081205

ANCIENT SOIL REPLENISHMENT TECHNIQUE AND GLOBAL WARMING
Ancient Soil Replenishment Technique Aids in Battle Against Global Warming, 2008 (Science Daily, University of Georgia Press Release) Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081217190439.htm

AUSTRALIAN FORESTRY MINISTER INCLUDES BIOCHAR IN PLANS
Oil Mallee Plan Released – Australian Forestry Minister Terry Redman announces a plan for the oil mallee industry that includes biochar. (Farm News Online) 11/2008. Available at http://fw.farmonline.com.au/news/state/forestry/general/oil-mallee-plan-released/1364777.aspx

FINDING A SOLUTION TO SOIL CARBON PROBLEMS
Finding a Solution to Soil’s Carbon Problem. 11/21/2008.  (The Guardian.) Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/ethicallivingblog/2008/nov/21/organics-carbonemissions

ORGANIC GROWER USES BIOCHAR TO GROW IMPRESSIVE TURNIPS
Backyard Grower Preserves Eastham Turnip Tradition. A Cape Cod organic grower uses biochar to produce impressive heirloom turnips. 11/2008.  (Wicked Local Orleans.) Available at http://www.wickedlocal.com/orleans/fun/entertainment/dining/x776455263/

US AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ON BIOCHAR
Manure Shows Promise for On-Farm Fuel. 11/2008.  (Southeast Farm Press.) Available at  http://southeastfarmpress.com/news/agricultural-research-1128/

BIOCHAR “BLACK GOLD”
Winsor, Susan.  “Black Gold.” 11/2008.  (The Corn and Soybean Digest) Available at http://cornandsoybeandigest.com/corn/black_gold_soil_1108/

WOOD TO BIOCHAR IN NEW ZEALAND USING PYROLYSIS
Austin, Anna. “New Zealand Company Converts Wood to Charcoal.” December 2008. (Biomass Magazine.)  Available at http://www.biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2217

POWER PLANT TARGETS FARM WASTE
Plant Targets Farm Waste. 12/2008.  (The Observer.) http://www.theobserver.ca/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=1325256

THE 10 TECHNOLOGIES TO SAVE THE PLANET
Goodall, Christopher.  “The 10 Big Energy Myths.” 11/2008.  (The Guardian.)  Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/27/renewableenergy-energy

TEN WAYS TO SAVE THE WORLD
Osborne, Tamsin. 12-02-08, New Scientist, Ten Ways to Save the World. 12/2008.  (New Scientist.) Available at http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16179-ten-ways-to-save-the-world.html

RICE UNIVERSITY WINS COMPETITION WITH BIOCHAR IDEA
Feibel, Carolyn.  12-10-08, Houston Chronicle, Team from Rice wins $10,000 in ‘Recycle Ike’ Contest. 12/2008. (The Houston Chronicle.) Available at http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/headline/metro/6158073.html

ANCIENT SKILLS COULD REVERRSE GLOBAL WARMING
Lean, Geoffrey.  “Ancient Skills ‘Could Reverse Global Warming’.”  12/2008.  (The Independent.) Available at http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/ancient-skills-could-reverse-global-warming-1055700.html

BETTING ON BIOCHAR TO SOLVE OUR SUPER CO2 IMBALANCE
Streeter, April. Betting on Biochar to Solve Our Super CO2 Imbalance. 12/2008.  (Treehugger.) Available at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/12/betting-on-biochar-to-break-the-co2-imbalance.php

AFRICA CALLS FOR BIO-CARBON AS CLIMATE SOLUTION
“Africa Calls for ‘Full-Range’ of Bio-Carbon as Climate Solution.” 12/2008. (Mongabay.com) Available at http://news.mongabay.com/2008/1210-africa.html

FAST-ACTING CLIMATE SOLUTIONS NECESSARY
“Dangerous Sea Level Rise Imminent Without Large Reductions of Black Carbon and Implementation of Other Fast-Action Mitigation Strategies.” 12/2008. (MarketWatch.com.) Available at http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/Dangerous-Sea-Level-Rise-Imminent/story.aspx?guid=4A4237D2-E49F-4E36-BF6F-632232ED133E

DOCUMENTARIES

AGRICHAR: A SOLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
ABC Science TV:  Catalyst, 2007: Agrichar – A Solution to Climate Change? Available on Youtube.

THE SECRET OF EL DORADO
BBC Horizon documentary, 2002. “The Secret of El Dorado.”

THE PROMISE OF BIOCHAR
By the VenEarth Group and the International Biochar Initiative, “The Promise of Biochar,” 2008.  Available at: http://www.venearth.com/index.html


CRITICISM OF BIOCHAR

BIOCHAR CAUSES LOSS OF FOREST HUMUS?
Wardle, David et al.  “Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus” 2008. Science Vol. 320, no. 5876, p. 629.  Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;320/5876/629?maxtoshow=&HITS=150&hits=150&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexacttitle=or&andorexacttitleabs=or&fulltext=david+wardle&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&fdate=7/1/1880&tdate=12/31/2008&resourcetype=HWCIT,HWELTR

LEHMANN’S COMMENTS ON “BIOCHAR CAUSES LOSS OF FOREST HUMUS”
Lehmann, Johannes; Sohi, Saran. “Comment on ‘Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus” 2008. Science Vol. 321, no. 5894, p. 1295. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;321/5894/1295c

WARDLE’S RESPONSE TO LEHMANN’S COMMENTS ON “BIOCHAR CAUSES LOSS OF FOREST HUMUS”
Wardle, David et al. “Reponse to Comments on ‘Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus” Science Vol. September 5, 2008.  Science Vol. 321, no. 5894, p. 1295. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/321/5894/1295d

BIOCHAR CRITIQUE BY BIOFUEL WATCH
Ernsting, Almuth; Rughani, Deepak, “Climate Geo-engineering with ‘Carbon Negative’ Bioenergy,” 2008.  (Not Published in Peer Reviewed Journal) Available at http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/cnbe/climate_geoengineering_web221208.pdf

BIOCHAR FACT OR FICTION
Ernsting, Almuth; Smolker, Jamie. “Biochar Climate Change Mitigation: Fact or Fiction,” 2009.  (Not published in Peer Reviewed Journal.) Available at: http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/biocharbriefing.pdf

MONBIOT CRITICIZES BIOCHAR
Monbiot, George. “Wood chips with Everything: It’s the Atkins plan of the low carbon world,” The Guardian, March 24, 2009. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/mar/24/george-monbiot-climate-change-biochar

LOVELOCK RESPONDS TO MONBIOT
“James Lovelock on Biochar: Let the Earth Remove the CO2 for Us.” (The Guardian) James Lovelock, March 24, 2009: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/mar/24/biochar-earth-c02

GRIST RESPONSE TO MONBIOT
“Don’t throw out the biochar baby with the bathwater” (Grist.com) Gloria Flora, April 23, 2009:  http://postcarbon.org/dont_throw_the_biochar

TOP BIOCHAR PAPERS

BREAKING THE CLIMATE DEADLOCK: TECHNOLOGY FOR A LOW CARBON FUTURE
Blair, Tony (The Climate Group) “Breaking the Climate Deadlock: Technology for a Low Carbon Future,” Published online July, 2009, available at: http://tonyblairoffice.org/180_TCG_BTCD_TB%20TECH%20REPORT.pdf?dm_i=597167498

CAPTURING CO2, SOx, AND NOx  WITH BIOCHAR
Day, Danny, Robert J. Evans, James W. Lee, Don Reicosky, “Economical CO2, SOx, and NOx capture from fossil-fuel utilization with combined renewable hydrogen production and largescale carbon sequestration”, 30 ENERGY 2558 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.07.016

BIOCHAR ENERGY BALANCE AND EMISSIONS
Gaunt, John L., Johannes Lehmann, “Energy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar Sequestration and Pyrolysis Bioenergy Production”, 42 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 4152 (2008 ) available athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071361i.

AMAZONIAN SOILS MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Glaser, Bruno, “Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia : a model for sustainable agriculture in the 21st century”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362, 187-196, (2007) Available at: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/362/1478/187.full.pdf+html

USING BIOCHAR FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE TROPICS
Glaser, Bruno.  “The Terra Preta Phenomenon: A model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics.” Naturwissenshaften, (2001) 88: 37-41. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ch88m96jtrfrj4gk/

WEATHERED SOILS AND CHARCOAL IN THE TROPICS
Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. and Zech, W. 2002. “Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review”, Biology and Fertility of Soils 35 , 219-230.

WHERE SHOULD HUMANITY AIM?
Hansen, James, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha, David Beerling, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Mark Pagani, Maureen Raymo, Dana L. Royer, James C. Zachos, “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”

THE CHARCOAL VISION: A WIN-WIN-WIN SCENARIO
Laird, David A., The Charcoal Vision: A Win-Win-Win Scenario for Simultaneously Producing Bioenergy, Permanently Sequestering Carbon, while Improving Soil and Water Quality, 100 AGRONOMY J. 178 (2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agrojnl2007.0161

BIOCHAR SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
Lehmann, .J, Gaunt, J. and Rondon, M. 2006. “Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 403-427.

BIO-ENERGY IN THE BLACK
Lehmann J. 2007. “Bio-energy in the black.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5, 381-387.

BIOCHAR SOIL MANAGEMENT IN THE TROPICS
Lehmann J. and Rondon M. 2006. “Bio-char soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics”. In Uphoff N. (ed.) Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems. CRC Press, Boca
Raton , FL. pp.517-530.

NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY AND LEACHING IN TROPICS
Lehmann, J., da Silva Jr., J.P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W. and Glaser, B. 2003. “Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments”, Plant and Soil 249 , 343-357.

ANALYZING DIFFERENT GEOENGINEERING OPTIONS
Lenton, Tim; N. E. Vaughan. “The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options”, Atmosphere, Chemistry, Physics Discussion 9, 2559-2608, 2009.   Available at http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/9/2559/2009/acpd-9-2559-2009.pdf

BIOCHAR INCREASING CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY
Liang, B. , Lehmann, J., Solomon, D., Kinyangi, J., Grossman, J., O’Neill, B., Skjemstad, J.O., Thies, J., Luizão, F.J., Petersen, J. and Neves, E.G. 2006. “Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils”, Soil Science Society of America Journal 70: 1719-1730.

BLACK IS THE NEW GREEN
Marris, E. 2006. “Black is the new green”, Nature 442: 624-626.

FORESTS AND CHARCOAL HEARTHS IN PENNSYLVANIA, USA
Mikan, C.J. and Abrams, M.D. 1995. “Altered forest composition and soil properties of historic charcoal hearths in southeastern Pennsylvania”, Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 25, 687-696. Available at http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=466597

DATING OF ORGANIC SOIL MATTER
Pessenda, L.C.R., Gouveia, S.E.M. and Aravena, R. 2001. “Radiocarbon dating of total soil organic matter and humin fraction and its comparison with 14 C ages of fossil charcoal”, Radiocarbon 43 , 595-601. http://columbia.library.ingentaconnect.com/content/arizona/rdc/2001/00000043/00000002/art00060?crawler=true

ANALYSIS OF BIOCHAR IN SOILS
Schmidt, M.W.I. and Noack, A.G. 2000. ‘Black carbon in soils and sediments: analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges’, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14 , 777-794.

SHOULD WE STORE CARBON IN CHARCOAL?
Seifritz, W. 1993. “Should we store carbon in charcoal?”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 18 , 405-407.

CHARRED GRASSLAND PLANTS
Shindo, H. 1991. “Elementary composition, humus composition, and decomposition in soil of charred grassland plants”, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 37 , 651-657.

A REVIEW OF BIOCHAR AND DIRECTION FUTURE RESEARCH
Sohi, Saran, Elisa Lopez-Capel, Evelyn Krull, Roland Bol. “Biochar, cliamte change, and soil: A review to guide future research,” CSIRO 1834-6618, 2009. Available at http://www.csiro.au/files/files/poei.pdf.

SEQUESTERING CARBON IN THE TROPICS AND SUBTROPICS
Sombroek, W., Nachtergaele, F.O. and Hebel, A. 1993. “Amounts, dynamics and sequestering of carbon in tropical and subtropical soils”, Ambio 22, 417-426.

EFFECTS OF MANURE, CHARCOAL AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION
Steiner, Christoph, Wenceslau G. Teixeira, Johannes Lehmann, Thomas Nehls, Jeferson Luis Vasconcelos de Macêdo, Winfried E. H. Blum, Wolfgang Zech, Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil, 291 PLANT & SOIL 275 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9193-9.

BIOCHAR AND CROP PRODUCTION IN THE AMAZON
Steiner, C., Teixeira, W. G., Lehmann J., Nehls, T., Vasconcelos de Macêdo, J. L. V., Blum, W. E. H. and Zech, W. 2007. “Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil”, Plant and Soil. 291, 275-290.

CARBON NEGATIVE BIOFUELS FROM LOW INPUT HIGH DIVERSITY GRASSES
Tilman, David;  Hill, Jason; Lehman, Clarence. 2006. “Carbon Negative Biofuels from Low-Input-High-Diversity Grassland Biomass,” Science, 314, 1598-1600. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/314/5805/1598

BIOCHAR AND MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
Warnock, D.D., Lehmann, J., Kuyper, T.W. and Rillig, M.C. 2007. “Mycorrhizal responses to biochar in soil – concepts and mechanisms”, Plant and Soil 300, 9-20.

BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON SMALL FARMS
Woods, William I., Newton P. S. Falcão, and Wenceslau G. Teixeira. 2006. “Biochar Trials aim to enrich soil for smallholders”. Nature 443:144.

BIOCHAR AS A SOIL AMMENDMENT
Woolf, Dominic. “Biochar as a Soil Amendment – A review of the Environmental Implications” , January 2008, Swansea University.

BIOMASS PYROLYSIS FOR FUELS AND FEEDSTOCKS
Yaman, S. 2004. “Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks”, Energy Conversion and Management 45 , 651-671.

EFFECTS OF BIOCHAR ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS
Yanai, Y., Toyota, K. and Okazani, M. 2007. “Effects of charcoal addition on N2O emissions from soil resulting from rewetting air-dried soil in short-term laboratory experiments.” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 53, 181-188.

BLACK SOIL, GREEN RICE
International Rice Research Institute: “Black Soil, Green Rice”, Rice Today (April-June 2007).

PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS TO PRODUCE FUELS AND FEEDSTOCKS
Yaman, Serdar, Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks, 45 ENERGY CONVERSION & MANAGEMENT 651 (2004) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.200431298.

BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON SMALL FARMS
Woods, William I., Newton P. S. Falcão, and Wenceslau G. Teixeira. 2006. “Biochar Trials aim to enrich soil for smallholders”. Nature 443:144.

ALL BIOCHAR RELATED PUBLICATIONS

A-B

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF MOBILE FAST PYROLYSIS
Badger, Philip C. and Peter Fransham, Use of mobile fast pyrolysis plants to densify biomass and reduce biomass handling costs –A preliminary assessment, 30 BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY 321 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.07.011

COMPARISON OF FAST PYROLYSIS VS. GASIFICATION OR COMBUSTION
Bridgwater, A. V., A. J. Toft, and J.G. Brammer, A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion, 6 RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS 181 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-0321(01)00010-7.

OVERVIEW OF FAST PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS
Bridgwater, A. V., D. Meier, and D. Radlein, An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass, 30 ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY 1479 (1999) available at http://www.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(99)00120-5.

C

STABILITY OF BLACK CARBON IN DIFFERENT CLIMATES
Cheng , Chih-Hsin, Johannes Lehmann, Janice E. Thies & Sarah D. Burton, Stability of black carbon in soils across a climatic gradient, 113 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH G02027 (4 June 2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000642.

OXIDATION OF BLACK CARBON
Cheng, Chih-Hsin, Johannes Lehmann, Janice E. Theis, Sarah D. Burton, Mark H. Engelhard, Oxidation of black carbon by biotic and abiotic processes, 37 ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY 1477 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.06.022.

NATURAL OXIDATION OF BLACK CARBON IN SOILS
Cheng, Chih-Hsin, Johannes Lehmann, Mark H. Engelhard, Natural oxidation of black carbon in soils-Changes in molecular form and surface charge along a climosequence, Geochimica etCosmochimica Acta, 72 (2008 ) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/GeochimCosmochimActa%2072,%201598-1610,%202008%20Cheng.pdf

D-E

CAPTURING CO2, SOx, AND NOx  WITH BIOCHAR
Day, Danny, Robert J. Evans, James W. Lee, Don Reicosky, Economical CO2, SOx, and NOx capture from fossil-fuel utilization with combined renewable hydrogen production and largescale carbon sequestration, 30 ENERGY 2558 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.07.016.

WATER USE EFFICIENCY AND UPTAKE IN AGROFORESTRY
Droppelmann, K.J., J. Lehmann, J.E. Ephrath, and P.R. Berliner, Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a runoff agroforestry system in an arid environment, 49 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 223 (2000) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgroforSyst%2049,%20223-243,%202000%20Droppelmann.pdf.

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INVENTORY OF BIOMASS RESOURCES IN THE AMAZON
Feldpausch, Ted R., Andrew J. McDonald, Carlos A.M. Passos, Johannes Lehmann, Susan J. Riha, Biomass, harvestable area, and forest structure estimated from commercial timber inventories and remotely sensed imagery in southern Amazonia, 233 FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 121 (2006) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/ForEcolManage%20233,%20121-132,%202006%20Feldpausch.pdf.

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BIOCHAR ENERGY BALANCE AND EMISSIONS
Gaunt, John L., Johannes Lehmann, Energy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar Sequestration and Pyrolysis Bioenergy Production, 42 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 4152 (2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071361i.

AMAZONIAN SOILS MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Glaser, Bruno, “Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia : a model for sustainable agriculture in the 21st century”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B  362, 187-196, (2007) Available at: http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/q12738677305233m/?p=d63745aedbf644f884a9af02c811db26π=0

USE OF CHARCOAL ON HIGHLY WEATHERED SOILS IN THE TROPICS
Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, Wolfgang Zech, “Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review,” 35 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 219 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-002-0466-4.

USING BIOCHAR FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE TROPICS
Glaser, Bruno.  “The Terra Preta Phenomenon: A model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics.” Naturwissenshaften, (2001) 88: 37-41. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/ch88m96jtrfrj4gk/

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TARGET CO2: WHERE SHOULD HUMANITY AIM?
Hansen, James, Makiko Sato, Pushker Kharecha, David Beerling, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Mark Pagani, Maureen Raymo, Dana L. Royer, James C. Zachos, Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? available at http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2008/TargetCO2_20080407.pdf.

NITROGEN DYNAMICS IN MAIZE-BASED AGROFORESTRY IN MALAWI
Harawa, Rebbie, Johannes Lehmann, Festus Akinnifesi, Erick Fernandes, George Kanyama-Phiri, Nitrogen dynamics in maize-based agroforestry systems as affected by landscape position in southern Malawi, 75 NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROSYSTEMS 271 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10705-006-9033-y.

I

BLACK SOIL, GREEN RICE
International Rice Research Institute, Black Soil, Green Rice, RICE TODAY (April-June 2007)

STREAMFLOW AND ROOT-INDUCED PREFERENTIAL FLOW
J Johnson, Mark S., Johannes Lehmann, Double-funneling of trees: Steamflow and root-induced preferential flow, 13 ECOSCIENCE 324 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2980/i1195-6860-13-3-324.1.

DOC AND DIC FLOWPATHS IN AMAZONIAN HEADWATERS
Johnson, Mark S., Johannes Lehmann, Eduardo Guimaraes Couto, Joao Paulo Novaes Filho, Susan J Riha, DOC and DIC in flowpaths of Amazonian headwater catchments with hydrologically contrasting soils, 81 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 45 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-006-9029-3.

VARIABILITY OF SOIL WATER REPELLENCY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS
Johnson, Mark S., Johannes Lehmann, Tammo S. Steenhuis, Lucielio Vargem de Oliveira, & Erick C. M. Fernandes, Spatial and temporal variability of soil water repellency of Amazonian pastures, 43 AUSTRALIAN J SOIL RES. 319 (2005) available at http://www.sfu.ca/~markj/Johnson_et_al.,Aust-J-Soil-Res_2005,v43,319-326.pdf.

LAND-USE CHANGE AND NITRATE EXPORTS
Johnson, Mark S., Peter B. Woodbury, Alice N. Pell, & Johannes Lehmann, Land-use Change and Stream Water Fluxes Decadal Dynamics in watershed Nitrate Exports, 10 ECOSYSTEMS 1182 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9091-2.

STORM PULSES OF DISSOLVED CO2 IN AMAZONIAN HEADWATERS
Johnson, Mark S., Storm pulses of dissolved CO2 in a forested headwater Amazonian stream explored using hydrograph separation, 43 WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, W11201 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006359.

J-K

REVERSING PRODUCITIVTY DECLINE WITH ORGANIC MATTER
Kimetu, Joseph M., Johannes Lehmann, Soloman O. Ngoze, Daniel N. Mugendi, James M. Kinyangi, Susan Riha, Lou Verchot, John W. Recha, & Alice N. Pell, Reversibility of Soil Productivity Declined with Organic Matter of Differing Quality Along a Degradation Gradient, ECOSYSTEMS (forthcoming 2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-008-9154-z.

COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIC MINERALS IN SOILS
Kinyangi, James, Dawit Solomon, Biquing Linag, Mirna Lerotic, Sue Wirick, and Johannes Lehmann Nanoscale Biogeocomplexity of the Organomineral Assemblage in Soil: Application of STXM Microscopy and C 1s-NEXAFS Spectroscopy, 70 SOIL SCI. SOC’Y OF AM. J. 1708 (2006) available at http://xray1.physics.sunysb.edu/research/pdf_papers/2006/kinyangi_soilsci_2006.pdf.

NITROGEN AVAILABILITY IN AMAZONIAN FLOODPLANE
Kreibich, Heidi, Johannes Lehmann, Gabriela Scheufele, Jurgen Kern, Nitrogen availability and leaching during the terrestrial phase in a varzea forest of the Central Amazon floodplain, 39 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 62 (2003) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-003-0670-x.

PHOSPHORUS IN EARTH WORM CASTINGS
Kuczak, Christienne N., Erick C.M. Fernandes, Johannes Lehmann, Marco A. Rondon, Flavio J. Luizao, Inorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscoleccidae) and a Brazilian rainforest Oxisol, 38 SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 553 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.06.007.

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THE CHARCOAL VISION: A WIN-WIN-WIN SCENARIO
Laird, David A., The Charcoal Vision: A Win-Win-Win Scenario for Simultaneously Producing Bioenergy, Permanently Sequestering Carbon, while Improving Soil and Water Quality, 100 AGRONOMY J. 178 (2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agrojnl2007.0161.

SLASH-AND-CHAR AS ALTERNATIVE TO SLASH-AND-BURN
Lehmann, Johannes, et al.  “Slash-and-Char: A feasible alternative for soil fertility management in the Central Amazon?” (2002) Presentation Poster. http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/Lehmann%20et%20al.,%202002,%20WCSS%20Bangkok,%20paper%20no.0449.pdf

SOIL PHOSPHORUS AND SULFUR IN THE AMAZON
Lehmann, J., D. Gunther, M. Socorro da Mota, M. Pereira de Almeida, W. Zech, and K. Kaiser, Inorganic and organic soil phosphorus and sulfur pools in an Amazonian multistrata agroforestry system, 53 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 113 (2001) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013364201542.

NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROFORESTRY IN KENYA
Lehmann, J., D. Weigl, K. Droppelmann, B. Huwe, & W. Zech, Nutrient cycling in agroforestry system with runoff irrigation in Northern Kenya, 43 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 49 (1999) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgroforSyst%2043,%2049-70,%201999%20Lehmann.pdf.

BIOCHAR SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
Lehmann, .J, J. Gaunt, and M. Rondon, Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review, 403-427 MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR GLOBAL CHANGE 11 (2006), DOI 10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5.  Available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/MitAdaptStratGlobChange%2011,%20403-427,%20Lehmann,%202006.pdf

RETENTION OF NITROGEN IN BRAZILIAN SOILS
Lehmann, J., J. Lilienfein, K. Rebel, S. do Carmo Lima, & W. Wilke, Subsoil retention of organic and inorganic nitrogen in a Brazilian savanna Oxisol, 20 SOIL USE & MANAGEMENT 163 (2004) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/SoilUseManage%2020,%20163-172,%202004%20Lehmann.pdf.

NUTRIENT CYCLING IN TROPICAL FRUIT TREE PRODUCTION
Lehmann, J., JP. Da Silva Jr., L. Trujillo, K. Uguen, Legume Cover Crops and Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Fruit Tree Production, 531 ACTA HORTICULTURAE 65 (2000) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/Acta%20Horticulturae%20531,%2065-72,%202000%20Lehmann.pdf.

BIOCHAR SOIL MANAGEMENT ON HIGHLY WEATHERED SOILS
Lehmann J. and M. Rondon, Bio-char soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics, 517-530 BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABLE SOIL SYSTEMS (2006), DOI 10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5 available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5.

NITROGEN UPTAKE OF SORGHUM
Lehmann, J., T. Feilner, G. Gebauer, W. Zech, Nitrogen uptake of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) from tree mulch and mineral fertilizer under high leaching conditions estimated by nitrogen-15 enrichment, 30 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 90 (1999) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003740050592.

ROOT DEVELOPMENT OF FRUIT TREES IN AMAZON
Lehmann, J., T. Muraoka, & W. Zech, Root activity patterns in an Amazonian agroforest with fruit trees determined by 32P, 33P, and 15N applications, 52 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 185 (2001) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011864621062.

ANALYZING NUTRIENT UPTAKE WITH TRACER METHODS
Lehmann, J., T. Muraoka, Tracer methods to assess nutrient uptake distribution in multistrata agroforestry systems, 53 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 133 (2001), DOI 10.1023/A1013368302450 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgroforSyst%2053,%20133-140,%202001%20LehmannMuraoka.pdf.

A HANDFUL OF CARBON
Lehmann, Johannes, A handful of carbon, 143-144 NATURE 447 (2007), DOI 10.1038/447143a Lehmann, Johannes, Bio-energy in the black, 5 FRONTIERS ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT 381 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[381:BITB]2.0.CO;2.

ANALYZING DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBONFORMS IN SOIL
Lehmann, Johannes, Biqing Liang, Dawit Solomon, Mirna Lerotic, Flavio Luizao, James Kinyagi, Thorsten Schafer, Sue Wirick, and Chris Jacobsen, Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbonforms in soil: Application to black carbon particles, 19 GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES GB1013 (2005) available at http://www.doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002435.

CHANGES IN ORGANIC SULFUR FORMS
Lehmann, Johannes, Dawit Solomon, Fang-jie Zhao, and Steve P. McGrath, Atmospheric SO2 Emissions Since the Late 1800s Change Organic Sulfur Forms in Humic Substance Extracts of Soils, 42 ENV’T SCI. TECH. 3550 (2008 ) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/ES&T%2042,%203550-3555,%202008%20Lehmann.pdf.

SPATIAL COMPLEXITY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
Lehmann, Johannes, Dawit Solomon, James Kinyagi, Lena Dathe, Sue Wirick, and Chris Jacobsen, Spatial complexity of soil organic matter forms at nanometre scales, 1 NATURE GEOSCIENCE 238 (April 2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo155.

NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS OF SORGHUM AND ACACIA
Lehmann, Johannes, Doris Weigl, Inka Peter, Klaus Droppelmann, Gerhard Gebauer, Heiner Goldback, and Wolfgang Zech, Nutrient interactions of alley cropped Sorghum bicolor and Acacia saligna in a runoff irrigation system in Northern Kenya, 210 PLANT & SOIL 249 (1999) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004698403770.

NITROGEN CYCLING IN HEDGEROW CROPPING SYSTEM
Lehmann, Johannes, Gerhard Gebauer, and Wolfgang Zech, Nitrogen cycling assessment in a hedgerow intercropping system using 15N enrichment, 62 NUTRIENT CYCLING AGROECOSYSTEMS 1 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015403922358.

SOIL INTERACTIONS IN DRYLAND AGROFORESTRY
Lehmann, Johannes, Inka Peter, Claudia Steglich, Gerhard Gebauer, Bernd Huwe, and Wolfgang Zech, Below-ground interactions in dryland agroforestry, 111 FOREST ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENT 157 (1998 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00322-3.

SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF ORGANIC CARBON
Lehmann, Johannes, James Kinyangi, Dawit Solomon, Organic matter stabilization in soil microaggregates: implications from spatial heterogeneity of organic carbon contents and carbon forms, 85 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 45 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-007-9105-3.

NITROGEN USE IN MIXED TREE CROP PLANTATIONS
Lehmann, Johannes, Jose Pereira da Silva Jr. Gotz Schroth, Gerhard Gebauer, and Luciana Ferreira da Silva, Nitrogen use in mixed tree crop plantations with a legume cover crop, 225 PLANT & SOIL 63 (2000) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026580127965.

NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY IN AMAZONIAN SOILS
Lehmann, Johannes, Jose Pereira da Silva Jr., Christoph Steiner, Thomas Nehls, Wolfgang Zech, & Bruno Glaser, Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure, and charcoal amendments, 249 PLANT & SOIL 343 (2003), DOI 10.1023/A:1006498709454 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20249,%20343-357,%202003%20Lehmann.pdf.

RUNOFF IRRIGATION CROPS IN KENYA
Lehmann, Johannes, Klaus Droppelmann, & Wolfgang Zech, Runoff irrigation crops with contrasting root and shoot development in northern Kenya: water depletion and above- and below-ground biomass production, 38 J. ARID ENV’TS 479 (1998 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.1997.0352.

EXCHANGE RESIN CORES FOR ESTIMATING NUTRIENT FLUXES
Lehmann, Johannes, Klaus Kaiser, and Inka Peter, Exchange resin cores for the estimation of nutrient fluxes in highly permeable tropical soil, 164 J. PLANT NUTRITION & SOIL SCI. 57 (2001), DOI 10.1023/A1006498709454 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/JPlantNutrSoilSci%20164,%2057-64,%202001%20Lehmann.pdf.

PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FOR PERENNIAL CROPS
Lehmann, Johannes, Manoel da Silva Cravo, Jeferson Luiz Vasconselos de Macedo, Adonis Moreira, & Gotz Schroth, Phosphorus management for perennial crops in central Amazonian upland soils, 237 PLANT & SOIL 309 (2001), DOI 10.1023/A1006498709454 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20237,%20309-319,%202001%20Lehmann.pdf.

ORGANIC MATTER STABILIZATION IN THE AMAZONLehmann, Johannes, Manoel da Silva Cravo, Wolfgang Zech, Organic matter stabilization in a Xanthic Ferralsol of the central Amazon as affected by single trees: chemical characterization of density, aggregate, and particle size fractions, 99 GEODERMA 147 (2000) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00070-7.

EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENTS IN CENTRAL TOGO
Lehmann, Johannes, Ninkabou Poidy, Götz Schroth, & Wolfgang Zech, Short-term Effects of Soil Amendment with Tree Legume Biomass on Carbon and Nitrogen in particle Size Separates in Central Togo, 30 SOIL, BIOLOGY, & BIOCHEMISTRY 1545 (1998 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00153-3.

ROOT ACTIVITY IN TREE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS
Lehmann, Johannes, Subsoil root activity in tree-based cropping systems, 255 PLANT & SOIL 319 (2003) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026195527076.

FINE ROOT TURNOVER OF IRRIGATED HEDGEROW CROPS IN KENYA
Lehmann, Johannes, Wolfgang Zech, Fine root turnover of irrigated hedgerow intercropping in Northern Kenya, 198 PLANT & SOIL 19 (1998 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004293910977.

PHOSPHORUS FORMS AND RETENTION IN MANURED SOILS
Lehmann, Johannes, Zhongdong Lan, Charles Hyland, Shinjiro Sato, Dawit Solomon, and Quirine M. Ketterings, Long-Term Dynamics of Phosphorus Forms and Retention in Manure-Amended Soils, 39 ENVTL. SCI. & TECH. 6672 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es047997g.

ANALYZING DIFFERENT GEOENGINEERING OPTIONS
Lenton, Tim; N. E. Vaughan. “The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options”, Atmosphere, Chemistry, Physics Discussion 9, 2559-2608, 2009.   Available at http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/9/2559/2009/acpd-9-2559-2009.pdf

BIOCHAR INCREASES CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY
Liang, B., J. Lehmann, D. Solomon, J. Kinyangi, J. Grossman, B. O’Niell, J.O. Skjemstad, J. Thies, F.J. Luizão, J. Petersen, & E.G. Neves, Black Carbon Increases Cation Exchange Capacity in Soils, 70 SOIL SCI. SOC’Y AM. J. 1719 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0383.

M

WEED DYNAMICS ON TERRA PRETA SOILS
Major, Julie, Antonio DiTomasso, Johannes Lehmann, Newton PS Falcao, Weed Dynamics on Amazonian Dark Earth and adjacent soils of Brazil, 111 AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS, & ENV’T 1 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.04.019.

WEED COMPOSITION AND COVER IN THE AMAZON
Major, Julie, Christoph Steiner, Antonio Ditommaso, Newton P.S. Falcao, and Johannes Lehmann, Weed composition and cover after three years of soil fertility management in the central Brazilian Amazon: Compost, fertilizer, manure, and charcoal applications, 5 WEED BIOLOGY & MANAGEMENT 69 (2005) available at  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-6664.2005.00159.x.

NEW DIRECTION IN BLACK CARBON GEOCHEMISTRY
Masiello, C. A., New directions in black carbon organic geochemistry, 92 MARINE CHEMISTRY 201 (2004) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2004.06.043.

ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS
McKendry, Peter, Energy production from biomass (part 2): conversion technologies, 83 BIORESOURCE TECH. 47 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00119-5.

TREE SPECIES OF THE CENTRAL AMAZON
Menyailo, O.V., B.A. Hungate, J. Lehmann, G. Gebauer, and W. Zech, Tree Species of the Central Amazon and Soil Moisture Alter Stable Isotope Composition of Nitrogen and Oxygen in Nitrous Oxide Evolved from Soil, 39 ISOTOPES ENVTL. HEALTH STUD. 41 (2003) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1025601031000096745.

SOIL MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE AMAZON
Menyailo, Oleg V., Johannes Lehmann, Manoel da Silva Cravo, Wolfgang Zech, Soil microbial activities in tree-based cropping systems and natural forests of the Central Amazon, Brazil, 38 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 1 (2003) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/BiolFertSoils%2038,%201-9,%202003%20Menyailo.pdf.

ALTERED FOREST COMPOSITION OF HISTORIC CHARCOAL HEARTHS
Mikan, C.J. and Abrams, M.D., Altered forest composition and soil properties of historic charcoal hearths in southeastern Pennsylvania, 687-696 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH 25 (1995), DOI 10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00274-7, available at http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=466597.

N

CHANGING HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE AMAZON
Neill, Christopher, Helmut Elsenbeer, Alex V. Krusche, Johannes Lehmann, Daniel Markewitz, & Ricardo de O. Figueiredo, Hydrological and biogeochemical processes in a changing Amazon: results from small watershed studies and the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment, 20 HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 2467 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6210.

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POTENTIAL OF CO2 EMISSIONS REDUCTION FROM BIOMASS WASTE
Okimori, Y., Ogawa, M. and Takahashi, F., Potential of CO2 emission reductions by carbonizing biomass waste from industrial tree plantation in south Sumatra , Indonesia, 261-280 MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR GLOBAL CHANGE 8 (2003), DOI 10.1023/B:MITI.0000005643.79908.5a available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:MITI.0000005643.79908.5a.

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RADIOCARBON DATING OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
Pessenda, L C R, S E M Gouveia, R Aravena, Radiocarbon Dating of Total Soil Organic Matter and Humin Faction and its Comparison with 14C Ages of Fossil Charcoal, 43 RADIOCARBON 595 (2001) available at http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2003.07.004.

PRUNING EFFECTS ON ROOT GROWTH OF ACACIA IN KENYA
Peter, I., and J. Lehmann, Pruning effects on root distribution and nutrient dynamics in an acacia hedgerow planting in northern Kenya, 50 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 59 (2000), DOI 10.1023/A:1006498709454 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgroforSyst%2050,%2059-75,%202000%20Peter.pdf.

A SYNTHESIS OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT BIOCHAR
Preston, C. M. and M. W. I. Schmidt, Black (pyrogenic) carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions, 3 BIOGEOSCIENCES 397 (2006) available at http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/397/2006/bg-3-397-2006.pdf.

Q-R

TRANSPORT OF NITROGEN IN TROPICAL SOILS
Renck, Andreas, Johannes Lehmann, Rapid Water Flow and Transport of Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen in a Highly Aggregated Tropical Soil, 169 SOIL SCIENCE 330 (May 2004), DOI 0038-075X/04/16905-330–341 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/SoilSci%20169,%20330-341,%202004%20Renck.pdf.

BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION INCREASES WITH BIOCHAR
Rondon, Marco A., Johannes Lehmann, Juan Ramírez, Maria Hurtado, Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions, 43 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 669 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-006-0152-z.

CARBON AND NITROGEN DECOMPOSING IN ORGANIC MATTER
Rovira, Pere and V. Ramon Vallejo, Labile and recalcitrant pools of carbon and nitrogen in organic matter decomposing at different depths in soil: an acid hypothesis approach, 107 GEODERMA 109 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(01)00143-4.

S

PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE AND MANURE-AMENDED SOILS
Sato, Shinjiro, Dawit Solomon, Charles Hyland, Quirine M. Ketterings, and Johannes Lehmann, Phosphorus Speciation in Manure and manure-Amended Soils Using XANES Spectroscopy, 39 ENVTL SCI. & TECH. 7485 (19 November 2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0503130.

BIOCHAR IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
Schmidt, Michael W.I. and A. G. Noack, Black carbon in soils and sediments: analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges, 777-794 GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 14 (2000), DOI 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.02.021, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.02.021.

BIOCHAR ISOTOPIC GEOCHEMISTRY
Schmidt, Michael W. I., Jan O Skjemstad, Cornelia Jäger, Carbon isotope geochemistry and nanomorphology of soil black carbon: Black chernozemic soils in central Europe originate from ancient biomass burning, 16 GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 1123 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GB001939.

PLANT-SOIL INTERACTIONS IN THE TROPICS
Schroth, G., J. Lehmann, M. R. L. Rodrigues, E. Barros, and J.L.V. Macedo, Plant-soil interactions on multistrata agroforestry in the humid tropics, 53 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 85 (2001), DOI 10.1023/A1013360000633 available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgroforSyst%2053,%2085-102,%202001%20Schroth.pdf.

CONTRASTING TREE SPECIES ON ALLEY CROPPED MAIZE
Schroth, Gotz, Johannes Lehmann, Contrasting effects of roots and mulch from three agroforestry tree species on yields of alley cropped maize, 54 AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS, & ENV’T 89 (1995) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(95)00585-G.

EFFECTS OF RAINFOREST DISTURBANCE ON NUTRIENT COMPOSITION
Schrumpf, Marion, Jan C. Axmacher, Wolfgang Zech, Johannes Lehmann, Herbert V.C. Lyaruu, Long-term effects of rainforest disturbance on the nutrient composition of throughfall, organic layer percolate and soil solution at Mt. Kilimanjaro, 376 SCIENCE TOTAL ENV’T 241 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.01.076.

TON, TOS, AND TOP OF MONTANE RAINFOREST IN TANZANIA
Schrumpf, Marion, Wolfgang Zech, Johannes Lehmann, and Herbert V.C. Lyaruu, TOC, TON, TOS, and TOP, in rainfall, throughfall, litter percolate, and soil solution of a montane rainforest succession at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, 78 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 361 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-005-4428-4.

NITROGEN TRANSFER BETWEEN LEAVES ON SOIL
Schwendener, Carol M., Johannes Lehmann, Plinio B. de Camargo, Regina C.C> Luizao, Erick C.M. Fernandes, Nitrogen transfer between high- and low-quality leaves on nutrient-poor Oxisol determined by 15N enrichment, 37 SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 787 (2005) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.10.011.

SHOULD WE STORE CARBON IN CHARCOAL?
Seifritz, W., Should we store carbon in charcoal?, 405-407 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY 18 , (1993).

LITTERFALL PRODUCTION IN AMAZONIAN CATCHMENTS
Selva, Evandro Carlos, Eduardo Guimaraes Couto, Mark S. Johnson, & Johannes Lehmann, Litterfall production and fluvial export in headwater catchments of the southern Amazon, 23 J. TROPICAL ECOLOGY 329 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/0.1017/S0266467406003956.

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOIL OF CHARRED GRASSLAND PLANTS
Shindo, H., Elementary composition, humus composition, and decomposition in soil of charred grassland plants, 651-657 SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 37 (1991).

CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOCHAR FROM WASTE SLUDGE
Shinogi, Y., H. Yoshida, T. Koizumi, M. Yamaoka, and T. Saito, Basic characteristics of low temperature carbon products from waste sludge, 7 ADVANCES ENVTL. RES. 661 (2003) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(02)00040-0.

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF INVASIVE VINE SPECIES
Smith, Larissa L., Antonio DiTomasso, Johannes Lehmann, and Sigurdur Greipsson, Growth and reproductive potential of the invasive exotic vine Vincetoxicum rossicum in northern New York State, 84 CANADIAN J. BOTANY 1771 (2006) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/CanJBot%2084,%201771-1780,%202006%20Smith.pdf.

EFFECTS OF MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON INVASIVE PLANTS
Smith, Larissa L., Antonio DiTommaso, Johannes Lehmann, and Sigudur Greipsson, Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Exotic Invasive Vine Pale Swallow-Wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), 1 INVASIVE PLANT SCI. & MANAGEMENT 142 (2008 ) available at http://dx.doi.org/0.1614/IPSM-07-010.1.

ROOOT MORPHOLOGY OF SIX TREE SPECIES IN ECUADOR
Soethe, N., J. Lehmann, & C. Engels, Root Morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador, 279 PLANT & SOIL 173 (2006) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20279,%20173-185,%202006%20Soethe.pdf.

ROOT CHARACTERISTICS IN FRACTAL ROOT SYSTEM ANALYSIS
Soethe, N., J. Lehmann, C. Engels, Root tapering between branching points should be included in fractal root system analysis, 207 ECOLOGICAL MODELLING 363 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.05.007.

VERTICAL PATTERN OF ROOTING IN ECUADORIAN MONTANE FOREST
Soethe, N., J. Lehmann, C. Engels, The vertical pattern of rooting and nutrient uptake at different altitudes of a south Ecuadorian montane forest, 286 PLANT & SOIL 287 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-006-9044-0.

CARBON AND NUTRIENT STOCKS OF ECAUDORIAN FORESTS
Soethe, Natalie, Johannes Lehmann, & Christof Engels, Carbon and nutrient stocks in root of forests at different altitudes in the Ecuadorian Andes, 23 J. TROPICAL ECOLOGY 319 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467407004002.

A REVIEW OF BIOCHAR AND DIRECTION FUTURE RESEARCH
Sohi, Saran, Elisa Lopez-Capel, Evelyn Krull, Roland Bol. “Biochar, cliamte change, and soil: A review to guide future research,” CSIRO 1834-6618, 2009. Available at http://www.csiro.au/files/files/poei.pdf.

ORGANIC CARBON SPECIATION IN SOILS
Solomon Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, James Kinyangi, Biqing Liang, & Thorsten Schäfer, Carbon K-Edge NEXAFS and FTIR-ATR Spectroscopic Investigation of Organic Carbon Speciation in Soils, 69 SOIL SCI. SOC’Y AM. J. 107 (2005) available at http://xray1.physics.sunysb.edu/research/pdf_papers/2005/solomon_sssaj_2005.pdf.

LOSS OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SOIL IN TANZANIA
Solomon, D., & J. Lehmann, Loss of phosphorus from soil in semi-arid northern Tanzania as a result of cropping: evidence from sequential extraction and 31P-NMR spectroscopy, 51 EUROPEAN J. SOIL SC. 699 (December 2000) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2000.00326.x.

SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DYNAMICS IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS
Solomon, D., F Fritzsche, J. Lehmann, M. Tekalign, & W. Zech, Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in the Subhumid Agroecosystems of the Ethiopian Highlands: Evidence from Natural 13C Abundance and Particle-Size Fractionation, 66 Soil Sci. Soc’y Am. J. 969 (2002) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/SoilSciSocAmJ%2066,%20969-978,%202002%20Solomon.pdf.

SOIL ORGANIC MATTER COMPOSITION OF ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS
Solomon, D., F. Fritzsche, M. Tekalign, J. Lehmann, & W. Zech, Soil Organic Matter Composition in the Subhumid Ethiopian Highlands as Influenced by Deforestation and Agricultural Management, 66 SOIL SCI. SOC’Y AM. J. 969 (2002) ) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2005.00702.x.

SULPHUR SPECIATION AND CYCLING OF SUBTROPICAL SOILS
Solomon, D., J. Lehmann, I. Lobe, C.E. Martinez, S. Tveitnes, C.C. Du Preez, & W. Amelung, Sulphur speciation and biogeochemical cycling in long-term arable cropping of subtropical soils: evidence from wet-chemcal reduction and S K-edge XANES spectroscopy, 56 EUROPEAN J. SOIL SCI. 621 (October 2005) available at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2005.00702.x.

SULFUR FRACTIONS IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS
Solomon, D., J. Lehmann, M. Tekalign, F. Fritzsche, W. Zech, Sulfur fractions in particle-size separates of the sub-humid Ethiopian highlands as influenced by land use changes, 102 GEODERMA 41 (2001) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00103-8.

LAND USE EFFECTS ON AMINO SUGAR IN TANZANIA
Solomon, D., J. Lehmann, W. Zech, Land use effects on amino sugar signature of chromic Luvisol in the semi-arid part of northern Tanzania, 33 BIOLOGY & FERTILITY SOILS 33 (2001) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/BiolFertSoils%2033,%2033-40,%202001%20Solomon.pdf.

LAND USE EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN TANZANIA
Solomon, D., J. Lehmann, W. Zech, Land use effects on soil organic matter properties of chromic luvisols in semi-arid northern Tanzania: carbon, nitrogen lignin and carbohydrates, 78 AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENV’T 203 (2000) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/AgricEcosysEnviron%2078,%20203-213,%202000%20Solomon.pdf.

SPECTROSCOPY FOR UNDERSTANDING SULFUR DYNAMICS
Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, & Carmen Enid Martinez, Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy as a Tool for Understanding Sulfur Dynamics in Soil Organic Matter, 67 SOIL SCI. SOC’Y AM. J. 1721 (2003) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2005.00702.x.

IMPACTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCE ON SOIL CARBON
Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, James Kinyangi, Wulf Amelung, Ingo Lobe, Alice Pell, Susan Riha, Solomon Ngoze, Lou Verchot, David Mbugua, Jan Skjemstad, & Thorsten Schafer, Long-term impacts of anthropogenic perturbations on dynamics and speciation of organic carbon in tropical forests and subtropical grassland ecosystems, 13 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE BIOLOGY 511 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01304.x.

MOLECULAR SOURCES OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE AMAZON
Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Thorsten Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Eduardo Neves, James Petersen, Flavio Luizao, Jan Skejemstad, Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths, 71 GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 2285 (2007) available at http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/GeochimCosmochimActa%2071,%202285-2298,%202007%20Solomon.pdf.

CHANGES IN PHOSPHORUS DYNAMICS BY LAND USE CHANGE
Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Tekalign Mamo, Florian Fritzsche, Wolfgang Zech, Phosphorus forms and dynamics as influenced by land use changes in the sub-humid Ethiopian highlands, 105 GEODERMA 21 (2002) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(01)00090-8.

SEQUESTERING OF CARBON IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL SOILS
Sombroek, W., F. O. Nachtergaele, and A. Hebel, Amounts, dynamics and sequestering of carbon in tropical and subtropical soils, 417-426 AMBIO 22 (1993).

EFFECTS OF MANURE, CHARCOAL AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION
Steiner, Christoph, Wenceslau G. Teixeira, Johannes Lehmann, Thomas Nehls, Jeferson Luis Vasconcelos de Macêdo, Winfried E. H. Blum, Wolfgang Zech, Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil, 291 PLANT & SOIL 275 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9193-9.

SLASH AND CHAR AS ALTERNATIVE TO SLASH AND BURN
Steiner, Christoph, Slash and Char as Alternative to Slash and Burn – soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and establish a carbon sink (Cuvillier Verlag, Bayreuth. December 2007).

T

EFFECTS OF CHARCOAL ON PROPERTIES OF FOREST SOILS
Tryon, E.H., Effect of Charcoal on Certain Physical, Chemical, and Biological, Properties of Forest Soils, 18 ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS 81 (January 1948 ) available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1948629.

U-W

SOIL ORGANIC SULFUR DYNAMICS IN THE GREAT PLAINS
Wang, Jingkuan, Dawit Solomon, Johannes Lehmann, Xudong Zhang, Wulf Amelung, Soil organic sulfur forms and dynamics in the Great Plains of North America as influenced by longterm cultivation and climate, 133 GEODERMA 160 (2006) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.07.003.

MYCRORRHIZAL RESPONSES TO BIOCHAR IN SOIL
Warnock, Daniel D., Johannes Lehmann, Thomas W. Kuyper, Matthias C. Rillig, Mycorrhizal responses to biochar in soil – concepts and mechanisms, 300 PLANT & SOIL 9 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9391-5.

BIOCHAR PRODUCTION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION
Winsley, Peter, Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation, 64 N.Z. SCI. REV. 5 (2007) available at http://www.biocharinternational.org/images/NZSR64_1_Winsley.pdf.

BIOCHAR TRAILS TO ENRICH SOILS FOR SMALLHOLDERS
Woods, William I., Newton P. S. Falcão, and Wenceslau G. Teixeira, Biochar Trials aim to enrich soil for smallholders, 144 NATURE 443 (2006), DOI 10.1038/443144b, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/443144b.

REVIEW OF BIOCHAR AS A SOIL AMENDMENT
Woolf, Dominic, Biochar as a Soil Amendment – A review of the Environmental Implications,SWANSEA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY (Jan. 2008 ) available at http://www.orgprints.org/13268/01/Biochar_as_a_soil_amendment_-_a_review.pdf.

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOILS IN KENYA
Wulf, Sebastian, Johannes Lehmann, Wolfgang Zech Emissions of nitrous oxide from runoff irrigated and rainfed soils in semiarid north-west Kenya, Agriculture, 72 ECOSYSTEMS & ENV’T 201 (1999) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(98)00172-8.

X-Y

PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS TO PRODUCE FUELS AND FEEDSTOCKS
Yaman, Serdar, Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks, 45 ENERGY CONVERSION & MANAGEMENT 651 (2004) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.200431298.

EFFECTS OF BIOCHAR ADDITION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS
Yanai, Yosuke, Koki Toyota, & Masanori Okazaki, Effects of charcoal addition on N2O emissions from soil resulting from rewetting air-dried soil in short term laboratory experiments, 45 ENERGY CONVERSION & MANAGEMENT 651 (2007) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00123.x.

Z

FACTORS CONTROLLING SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN THE TROPICS
Zech, Wolfgang, Nicola Senesi, Georg Guggenberger, Klaus Kaiser, Johannes Lehmann, Teodoro M. Miano, Anja Miltner, Gotz Schroth, Factors controlling humification and mineralization of soil organic matter in the tropics, 79 GEODERMA 117 (1997) available a http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

The following references are provided as resources for biochar research.  For more resources please see the searchable database compiled by Dr. Julie Major, Extension Director of the International Biochar Initiative.

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